Physics refers to the branch of science that deals with the structure of matter. In fact, up until some time ago, the terms physics and natural philosophy were used interchangeably since they dealt with studying the fundamental laws of nature. Specifically, physics deals with understanding the principles and regulations that govern the physical world. Physics can, at its base, be defined as the science of matter, motion, and energy. The study of Physics, therefore, helps us find a unified set of laws governing matter, motion, and energy. Let us look at the importance of physics in some detail:

- First things first, Physics helps us understand how the world around us works. From cars to phones to muscles, the workings of just about everything are studied in physics. Physics is the basis for most modern technology.
- Physics helps us see the connections between what otherwise seems like disparate phenomena in nature.
- Physics is the foundation of many other critical scientific disciplines in which physical laws and measurements play a unique role, such as astrophysics, geophysics, biophysics, and more.
- It offers analytical skills in analyzing data and solving problems.
- It opens doors to several career options.

To master physics, it is essential to understand the concepts thoroughly. Students often resort to learning formulae by rote without really understanding the application, which can only get them so far. With that said, let us look at some of the basic physics concepts, physics formulas, and their applications.

Table of Contents

## 1. Angular Acceleration

Angular acceleration, also referred to as rotational acceleration, is a quantitative expression of the change in angular velocity per unit time.

Its formula is:

α=Δω/Δt

Real-life Application: Bullets have grooves cut into them so that they can spin when they are shot. Angular acceleration can be observed in various sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating, diving, and snowboarding.

## 2. Potential Energy

The energy possessed by a body due to its position and configuration is called potential energy.

PE= mgh

where m is the body’s mass, h is the height above the ground, and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

Real-Life Application: Potential energy includes the energy of a skydiver waiting to jump from an airplane, the energy of a stretched rubber band, and the energy in a battery.

## 3. Gravitational Force

All objects having mass attract each other with a force known as the gravitational force.

It can be calculated as F = (G * m1 * m2) / d^2. Where G is the gravitational constant, m1 and m2 are the masses of the bodies, and d is the distance between them.

Real-life Application: Gravitational force causes a ball you throw in the air to come down again.

## 4. Surface Tension

It is the property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force due to the cohesive nature of its molecules.

Surface tension = (surface force)/ (length force acts)

γ = F /d where:

F is the force that applies to the liquid, and d refers to the length where the force acts.

Real-Life Application: Droplets of dew hanging on a blade of grass.

## 5. Projectile Motion

Projectile motion refers to the curved path an object follows when it is thrown or projected into the air and moves under the influence of gravity.

H = u sinθ/g (where u is initial velocity and g is gravity’s acceleration)

Real Life Application: When you sneeze, the particles and droplets that come out of your mouth travel in a projectile manner.

## 6. Power

We can define power as the rate of doing work. It is the work done in unit time.

P = W/T (W – work done by an object, T – total time taken)

Real-Life Application: We encounter examples of power in various forms. When we turn on a light switch, we use electrical power to produce light. Similarly, when we drive a car, we are using mechanical power to move the vehicle.

## 7. Coulomb’s Law

According to Coulomb’s law, the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. It acts along the line, joining the two charges considered to be point charges.

F=Ke (q1q2/r^2)

Ke is Coulomb’s law constant, q1 and q2 are the charges, r is the distance between the two charges, and F is the force.

Real-Life Application: When a comb is rubbed against the hair, it becomes charged. This charged comb can attract small pieces of paper that have opposite charges.

## 8. Linear Momentum

Linear momentum is defined as the product of a system’s mass multiplied by its velocity.

P = m * v (where m is the mass and v is the velocity)

The Law of Conservation of Momentum states that the momentum of a body is always conserved unless an external force is applied to the object.

Real Life Application:

One application of conservation of momentum is the launching of rockets. The burning of the rocket fuel pushes the exhaust gases downwards, pushing the rocket upwards.

## 9. Force

A force is an external agent that may change a body’s condition of rest or motion.

F = ma (where m is mass and a is acceleration)

Real-Life Application: The opening and shutting a door and pushing a shopping cart are all examples of force.

## 10. Work Done

The Work is said to be done when a force (push or pull) applied to an object causes a displacement of the object.

Work (W) = force (F) * Displacement (d)

Real-Life Application: A horse pulling a plow through the field and a person pushing a grocery cart in a shopping mall are examples of work done.

## To Sum Up

Physics is one of the fields of knowledge that underlies the physical universe. Importantly, it applies to our daily lives—be it simple things such as making our morning coffee or something as complex as plotting a space shuttle flight from Earth into orbit; the importance of basic knowledge of physics and physics formulas cannot be overstated.

At Pragyanam, one of the best CBSE schools in Gurgaon, we try to pique our students’ curiosity so that they become learners for life. School admission at Pragyanam, therefore, is highly valued on account of the holistic development of children.

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